Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Uses and side effects of Deprex tablets

What is Deprex?
Deprex is a brand of olanzapine manufactured by Square Pharmaceuticals, India. It is a drug prescribed for psychosis and bipolar disorder.
When administered as an injection, it quite useful for treating acutely disturbed patients who are unable take oral medications. Its principal side effects are drowsiness, weight gain, and problems with blood sugar patients predisposed to diabetes.

Uses of Deprex
Deprex can be used in a wide variety of mental disorders
·         Schizophrenia—Deprex is effective in managing the symptoms Schizophrenia including delusions, hallucinations, disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions.
·         Bipolar disorder—This exhibits itself as an extreme and often persistent mood swings that can disrupt a person’s day to day functioning. Mania and depression can be sometimes accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and grandiose delusions. Deprex is found to be effective in treating both the manic and depressive phases of the illness and it stabilizes the mood of the patients.
·         Depression—Current evidence suggest that in combination with Prodep (Fluoxetine), Deprex is quite effective in treating depression resulting in bipolar disorder.
·         Controlling disturbed patients—Deprex have a sedative and calming profile and patients with acutely disturbed behavior, especially psychotic patients. Deprex is available as both intramuscular injection and rapid ingestion tablets that dissolves quickly inside the mouth.

How to Take Deprex
Deprex comes as a pill in an Aluminium wrapping or as orally disintegrating tablet (tablet that dissolves quickly in the mouth). Usual dosage is once a day.
You need to follow the prescription carefully, and need to ask your doctor or your if you do not understand what it says. You need to take the medication as exactly as directed by the psychiatrist. You should not take more or less of the medication.
Orally dissolving tablets will quickly dissolve in the mouth and do not have an unpleasant aftertaste.
Usually, your doctor start you on a low dose of Deprex then gradually increase the dose.
It is very important to understand that this medication would control your symptoms, but will not cure your underlying condition. In addition, it may take around several weeks or may be longer before you feel the full benefit of the treatment. It is also very important to continue to take the medication even though you feel well.

Do not stop the medication without explicit advice from your doctor.

Picture of bipolar illness depicting both mania and depression

Warnings and Precautions Before You Take Deprex
·         Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to olanzapine or any other medications and food stuffs
·         Tell your doctor or pharmacist the prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you take or plan to take because this could affect your treatment.
·         Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had a stroke, a mini-stroke, heart disease or a heart attack, an irregular heartbeat, fits, breast cancer,
·         Any condition that makes it difficult for you to swallow,
·         High or low blood pressure,
·         a high level of fats (cholesterol and triglycerides) in your blood,
·         a low number of white blood cells,
·         liver or prostate disease, Stomach problems, glaucoma (an eye condition),
·         High blood sugar, or if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had diabetes.
·         Tell your doctor if you have severe vomiting or diarrhea
·         Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, especially if you are in the last few months of your pregnancy, or whether you plan to become pregnant or are breast-feeding.
·         If you become pregnant while taking olanzapine, call your doctor immediately.
  • Olanzapine may cause problems in newborns after delivery
·         It is very important You should know that Deprex may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
·         You should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness
·         Cigarette smoking may decrease the level of blood levels of this medication.

You should not smoke as it will reduce blood level of this medication causing less effect

Important Warning Before Taking Deprex
Newer Studies have shown that patients with dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and that may cause changes in mood and personality) who take medication similar to deprex
Senior citizens with dementia may also have a greater chance of having a stroke or mini-stroke during treatment with deprex.

Side Effects of Deprex
·         Drowsiness
·         Dizziness
·         Restlessness
·         Unusual behavior
·         Sleep difficulties
·         Weakness
·         Difficulty in walking
·         Constipation
·         Weight gain is common
·         Dry mouth
·         Pain in various body parts
·         Breast enlargement 
·         Late or missed periods
·         Decreased sexual potency
Some can be serious, call your doctor immediately. If you experience any of the following symptoms,
·         Seizures (Fits)
·         Visual disturbances
·         Swelling of the arms, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
·         Sore throat, fever, chills with rigors, and other signs of infection
·         Very stiff muscles
·         Excess sweating
·         Fast or irregular heartbeat
·         Rash
·         Hives
·         Difficulty breathing or swallowing
Overdose Symptoms
Symptoms of overdose may include:
·         Excessive Drowsiness
·         Slurred speech
·         Fast heartbeat
·         Sudden movements that you cannot control or extrapyramidal side effects
·         Coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)
If any of this symptoms are experienced, call the doctor immediately.

Please note that this author does not have any affiliation to Square Pharma, India or Deprex. The only purpose for this article is to highlight the uses and side effects of this medication. Always see a doctor before starting any treatment.

Uses and side effects of Tranax

Tranax is a prescription only drug in the benzodiazepine family. It is a brand of Alprazolam manufactured by Cipla pharmaceuticals, India. 

It is commonly prescribed by doctors to treat anxiety, phobias and panic disorders. In addition, some doctors prescribe this medication to alleviate sleep problems in certain patients.

Principal side effects of Tranax are drowsiness, tiredness and dizziness. One of the most important side effect of this medication is addiction. It can become habit forming and in certain individuals it can become a difficult to treat condition.

What are the common uses of this medication?

Panic disorder, Anxiety disorders and phobias are most common indications. It is effective in people who have social anxiety when they face social situations. 

Tranax 1mg tablets 
It is available as 1mg, 0.5mg and 0.25mg tablets.

What are the dangerous and problematic side effects?

One of the main problems with Tranax is dependence, withdrawal symptoms and tolerance. Dependence and withdrawal means getting adverse effects when the drug is stopped. These include sweating, muscle pains, apprehension and fits. Tolerance means requiring increased amount of the drug to achieve same benefit. This feature is also called habit formation.

Addiction is common side effect of Tranax

Allergic reactions to this medication can occur rarely and they can progress into an anaphylactic reaction. So be careful when a patient develops widespread hives, shortness of breath, chest tightness and pallor.

Some patients can become depressed and can get suicidal ideation. In addition, certain patients can get reduced inhibitions and may show increased risk taking behavior.

If taken during the night, drowsiness may continue to the next day. This side effect makes operating machinery and driving dangerous. In addition, taking alcohol with this medication can aggravate the problematic side effects of both alcohol and the drug.

Hangover in next day make operating machinery dangerous

What are the common but less dangerous side effects?

Fatigue and dizziness are quite common. In addition, certain patients may complain reduced muscle strength and co-ordination problems of movements. Other side effects are poor mental concentration, restlessness, confusion and memory loss.

What are the relatively rare side effects?

Rarely patients can get stomach upset including nausea and vomiting. In addition, certain patients may get breathing difficulty. Headache is another rare side effect. Rarely some patients may complain sexual problems with this medication. In addition, very rarely few patients may get urinary problems. Difficulty in speech can occur rarely in some patients.

What the doctor should know before prescribing?

 If the patient has following diseases, they should tell it to the doctor before taking the drug.
* Kidney disease
* Liver disease
* Breathing disorder
* Ataxia (poor control of body movements)
* Clinical depression
* Myasthenia gravis

Other than that, the doctor should know about over the counter medications you are on. If the you are pregnant, then the doctor may not prescribe this medication, especially in the last three months of the pregnancy. In addition, the doctor should know your sober habits before prescribing Tranax.

General advice

 This medication is available as tablets. Tablets should be taken with full glass of water without crushing, to minimize side effects. It can be taken with or without meals. Never share this medication with anybody else.

Finally let us see how this drug acts

Tranax Modulate GABA type A receptors in the brain and increases the inhibitory neurotransmission. This process alleviates anxiety and panic attacks. But the same action causes side effects such as drowsiness.

GABA Type A receptor, where tranax acts


Tranax or Xanax is a benzodiazepine class medication prescribed for anxiety disorders. Main side effects of this medication are drowsiness that may continue to the next day, increased risk of falls due to incoordination, problems in memory and drug dependence.

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Causes and symptoms of Serotonin Syndrome

Serotonin syndrome is a rare and potentially life threatening drug side effect. It is characterized by muscle stiffness, tremors, nausea, vomiting and fever. It occurs with drugs that interact with the serotonin system of the human body.

How serotonin acts?

Serotonin is a natural neurotransmitter in human body. It controls various autonomic functions such as appetite and sleep regulation. In addition serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter in various neuronal circuits of the brain. These neuronal circuits are responsible for various higher functions such as mood, memory and learning. Several classes of drugs adjust serotonin levels in the brain.

What happens in serotonin syndrome?

In serotonin syndrome, serotonin action increases suddenly. It can happen with the increased serotonin levels or with increased serotonin receptor sensitivity with normal serotonin levels. In addition it can be caused by increased levels of substances that stimulate serotonin receptors. Sudden increase in serotonin action causes following symptoms.

What are the symptoms of serotonin syndrome?

Common symptoms are confusion, coma, myoclonus, tremors, shivering, fever, ataxia, nausea/vomiting and high or low blood pressure (labile blood pressure).

What are the drugs that can precipitate it?

* SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
* Tricyclic anti-depressants
* MAO (Mono amine oxidase) inhibitors
* Amphetamines
* Lithium carbonate
* Drugs of abuse

This syndrome almost never occurs naturally without drugs or herbal medications.

What causes serotonin syndrome?

Serotonin syndrome can occur, when the drug dose is suddenly increased. This can commonly occur when patients mistakenly take higher doses for some time. In addition doctors sometimes mistakenly increase the dose, especially SSRIs. But it should be noted that serotonin syndrome occur almost always when the increased drug dose is taken within several days or weeks. However a single large dose of drugs usually does not cause serotonin syndrome.

Another common scenario that can result in serotonin syndrome is taking drugs of abuse such as Amphetamines (ecstasy) and cocaine by a patient who is on SSRIs or above drugs.
In addition, combining two serotonergic drugs can result in serotonin syndrome. Common drug combinations that can cause this syndrome are SSRIs /Lithium carbonate, SSRIs / TCAs and MAOI /SSRIs.

In addition some people may get serotonin syndrome with plant extracts such as St. John’s wart. The incidence is common if a person takes an antidepressant with St. John’s wart. In addition serotonin syndrome can occur rarely in patients who use above drugs, with over the counter cough preparations containing Dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome can also occur in people who take drugs of abuse such as LSD and MDMA.


Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life threatening drug complication. It can be caused by various drugs that interact with the serotonin system of the body, especially psychoactive substances such as Prozac, Lithium, LSD and St. John’s wart.

Monday, November 14, 2016

Use and side effects of Clonotril

Clonotril ® is a brand of clonazepam available in Indian sub-continent. It is a benzodiazepine class medication prescribed for epilepsy, anxiety disorders and for sleep disorders. Most common side effects reported by patients are drowsiness, dizziness, light headedness and walking difficulties (ataxia).

Long term side effects of Clonotril 

In addition to the common short term side effects mentioned above this medication has habit forming properties (Where the person need increasingly higher dosage to get the same effect esp. Sleep and reduction in anxiety) in long term use.

Clonotril 2mg tablets

What are the Uses of Clonotril ®

Epilepsy is the primary use of this medication. It decreases seizure frequency in epileptic patients. But it is commonly used in combination with other anti-epileptic medications. In psychiatry, it can be used to calm down severely disturbed patients and it is also used to treat sleep problems.

However, when it is used for sleep problems, it is very important to identify the underlying cause for the sleep problem. It is important to practice sleep hygiene techniques before getting treatment from sleep medications.

There are many causes for sleep problems that can be treated without sleep inducing medications. Depression and anxiety disorders are common causes for sleep disturbances. These problems settle once underlying cause is treated. In addition, there can be numerous medical problems associated with sleep difficulties.

Clonotril is prescribed in sleep problems, but sleep hygiene techniques should be tried first

Following sleep hygiene methods should be tried before taking medications

1. It is important to use the bed only for sleep

2. Do not take daytime naps or minimize them

3. It is very important not to take alcohol, coffee, coke or chocolate (Caffeine) just before sleep. Alcohol causes serious sleep disturbances. 

4. When you are having difficult time falling asleep then you need to get up from the bed and do something else without staying on the bed.

5. It is also important to make the sleeping environment comfortable, quiet and calm. Make your bed sheets clean and tidy.  

6. Exercise in day time, but not in night before sleep. 

Dose of Clonotril and how to use it

Dosage range is between 0.5mg to 4mg. However, most doctors prescribe between is 1mg and 2mgs. It is usually taken in the night to make sure drowsiness would not interfere with day to day activities. In addition, this medication has long action (30 – 40 hrs), so it is usually prescribed once a day.

Crushing this medication would increase side effects. E.g. Taking half a tablet would increase blood levels rapidly and cause more side effects so take the dose similar to ½ tablet as whole. In addition, take this medication with meal and with a full glass of water. 

It is very important not to exceed the dose prescribed by the doctor. If you feel you need more medication, then discuss with your prescribing doctor. This medication is having habit forming properties, therefore do not take it for long term without explicit advice from your doctor. If you discontinue it suddenly after prolonged use then there is possibility that it will cause severe withdrawal symptoms. 

What are the side effects of Clonotril

Following are a list of common side effects

1. Drowsiness
2. Dizziness
3. Unsteady gait (walking)
4. Muscle weakness

Drowsiness is a very significant side effect. It can affect driving and machinery operation. Sometimes it can persist into the morning even after night dose. Therefore, it is very important that you to see how you feel before driving or operating machinery. 

Operating machinery and driving can be dangerous when you are on this medication

What are the less common side effects of this medication? 

1. Headache and pain

2. Vertigo or unbalanceness 

3. Slurred speech

4. Low blood pressure 

5. Tremors of hands and body

6. Urine problems: - Common in elderly people

7. Respiratory depression: - It is important to tell whether you have respiratory problems such as Asthma, before getting the prescription. 

8. Blood disorders

9. Skin reactions

10. Paradoxical excitation: - Can cause disinhibition and increased activity in certain group of people.

What you should to tell your doctor, before getting the prescription?

If you are known to have following problems or medical condition, it is important that you tell that to your family doctor.

1. Liver problems
2. Kidney problems
3. Heart problems

4. Snoring in the night: - It is an indication of a condition called obstructive sleep apnea. In such people, it can cause dangerous lowering of breathing which causes the blood oxygen levels to drop during sleep. It may result in brain damage. Due to poor sleep at night, people with snoring complaints daytime drowsiness. 

5. Any medications or drugs you are taking, including street drugs

6. If you are a woman, then it is important to mention whether you are pregnant. 

You need to tell whether you are pregnant before getting prescription


Clonotril ® is a benzodiazepine class medication prescribed for epilepsy, calm down disturbed patients and for sleep problems. Common problems associated with this medication are drowsiness, lightheadedness and it can be habit forming in long term use.

Pictures  Courtesy : Wikimedia

Friday, March 18, 2016

Uses and side effects of Anxit tablets

Anxit is an Indian brand name of Generic Alprazolam manufactured by Micro pharmaceuticals. It is prescribed for anxiety disorders and in sleep problems. At lower doses it is helpful in reducing anxiety while causing minimal drowsiness. Most common side effects are drowsiness, fatigue and addiction. This medication can be habit forming in long term use. 

Anxit tablets

Uses of Anxit tablets

This tablet is primarily used to treat anxiety. At 0.25mg thrice a day, it is effective in treating sudden anxiety. It is helpful for people who experience anxiety in social situations such as social phobia. In addition, it is helpful in treating sudden panic attacks. However, it is not recommended to long term use in panic attacks.

In addition to above uses it can be used in treating epilepsy. However, it is rarely used for this purpose. 

This medication is used primarily to reduce anxiety

Dose range and use of Anxit tablets

This medication comes in 0.25mg and 0.5 tablets. Usually it is used thrice a day. It should not be crushed before use as it will increase the side effects. In addition, it should be taken with full glass of water.

This medication should not be used as a long term anti-anxiety medication. It is because it has habit forming properties and it can cause adverse effects upon discontinuation. In addition, in long term use some people may need increasing doses to get the same effect. So it is advisable to take it short term (Usually less than 3 months).

Common side effects

This medication is known to cause sedation and drowsiness. It can interfere with operating machinery and driving. Therefore, it is very important not to operate machinery or drive while on this medication. In addition, please state your occupation before getting the prescription from your doctor.
This medication interfere with normal sleep pattern. Therefore, some people may not experience natural sleep while on this medication. They may not feel refreshed following sleep.

This medication can cause problems with operating machinery

Some people may get suicidal ideation and this medication is known to precipitate depressive episodes. Other common side effects are impairment in memory, confusion, and fatigue. Confusion is much more common among elderly people who takes this medication.

This medication can interfere with driving

List of common side effects of Anxit tablets

1.       Sedation
2.       Drowsiness
3.       Dizziness
4.       Loss of quality sleep
5.       Depression
6.       Disinhibition
7.       Aggression
8.       Memory impairment
9.       Confusion
10.    Fatigue

Rare side effects of Anxit tablets

1.       Sexual difficulties
2.       Allergic reactions
3.       Headache
4.       Difficulty in walking

You need to discuss following information with your doctor before getting prescription

1.       Kidney disease
2.       Pregnancy status
3.       Breastfeeding
4.       Liver disease
5.       Breathing problem such as Asthma
6.       Clinical depression
7.       Myasthenia gravis


Anxit is a prescription only benzodiazepine class medication. Its generic name is Alprazolam. It is prescribed in Anxiety disorders and prescribed to induce sleep as well. Its main side effects are sedation, drowsiness, confusion and memory impairment.

Popular Posts