According to the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria, Acute alcohol intoxication is defined as A transient condition following administration of alcohol, resulting in disturbance of level of consciousness, cognition, perception, affect (mood) or behavior.
It is usually a dose related phenomena. More you drink, more chance of becoming intoxicated. If a person has underlying organic problems, such as renal failure or hepatic failure then alcohol intoxication may occur in less than normal doses of alcohol. In addition, some people are more prone to get alcohol intoxication, due to their genetic makeup.
Alcohol intoxication is a transient phenomena, that means it usually goes away once the blood alcohol concentration drops. In addition, recovery from alcohol intoxication is complete.
But pathological alcohol intoxication is different from normal acute alcohol intoxication.
Further reading on alcohol related issues
1. What is acute alcohol intoxication emedicine health article.